Here we have compiled the most probable Selenium with python interview questions and answers asked in the industry. You will become familiar with Selenium's components, typical problems, and the best ways to apply it in practical situations. These questions are curated after discussing with many interviewers and Selenium Training experts.
A popular open-source tool for automating web browsers is Selenium. It enables programmers to write scripts that can communicate with web pages in a manner akin to that of a human user. This makes it a crucial tool for automating repetitive processes and testing web applications.
Several Selenium Interview Questions and Answers will be covered in this article. These inquiries are intended to gauge your familiarity with Selenium as well as your capacity for critical thought and problem-solving. We'll talk about Selenium's components, typical problems users run into when using it, and the best ways to apply it to actual situations.
This post will offer insightful advice to help you ace your next Selenium interview, whether you are a seasoned developer or just getting started. Let's investigate some of the most often asked Selenium interview questions and their corresponding responses, which are divided into the following sections
Regression testing and functional testing are supported by Selenium.
Regression testing is the process of re-running a full or partial selection of previously conducted test cases to make sure that all features are still in place.
The actions required are:
Functional testing entails confirming that each application function adheres to the necessary specifications.
The procedures are as follows:
determine test results
Compare the results of the test to the real results.
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A feature called Same Origin policy was included for security reasons. This policy states that as long as both pages share the same origin, a web browser will permit scripts from one webpage to access the content of another webpage. The hostname, port number, and URL scheme together make up the origin.
A malicious script on one page cannot access private information on another due to the same Origin Policy.
To remedy this, selenium RC was introduced. The browser is "tricked" into thinking Selenium Core and the web application under test are coming from the same origin by the server, which serves as a client-configured HTTP proxy.
It is a plug-in for Firefox and Chrome that was created to expedite the production of automation scripts. It logs user activity on the web browser and exports it into a script that may be used again and again.
A programming interface called WebDriver makes it easier to develop and execute test cases. It includes a clause for handling web components. In contrast to RC, WebDriver works directly with the browser applications and doesn't call for a separate server.
To simultaneously deliver commands to other devices, the grid was created. It enables the concurrent execution of tests across many operating systems and browsers. It is extremely adaptable and integrates with other elements of the suite for concurrent execution.
A command called Locator instructs Selenium IDE on which GUI elements—such as text boxes, buttons, check boxes, etc.—it should perform operations. The area of activity is defined by locators.
The tool Selenium 2.0 facilitates the creation of automated testing for web applications. It symbolises the union of the WebDriver project and the original Selenium project. Although being deprecated since the merge, Selenium RC was still utilised.
The upgraded version of Selenium 2.0 is called Selenium 3.0. It is Selenium RC-free and is inherently backwards compatible. The updated version has numerous bug fixes and better stability.
Range returns the "list" regardless of the "range's" size, whereas "Xrange" delivers the "Xrange" object.
Related Article: Java Tutorial for Selenium WebDriver
The Selenium commands known as Selenese are used to test your web application. With Selenese, the tester can test broken links, the existence of certain UI objects, Ajax capabilities, notifications, windows, list choices, and much more.
By employing testing tools that let you write scripts that can be ran repeatedly, you may automate the manual testing process of an application or a system and produce thorough test reports for the application or system that is being tested.
The benefits of automated testing are as follows:
No, Selenium WebDriver is a framework for automating web-based applications, not an automation tool.
Distributing Selenium WebDriver scripts for Selenium Grid use necessitates Selenium Server. A Selenium feature called Selenium Grid enables you to run test cases on numerous computers running a variety of operating systems. Your local system is running a lot of applications, thus you want to run your test cases on a different machine. The remote server must be configured in order for the test cases to run on it.
Objects, modules, threads, errors, and automated memory management are all features of the programming language Python. The advantages of Python include its portability, extensibility, built-in data structures, and open source nature.
Python is one of the simpler programming languages and is not overly huge or complex. We can use Selenium to connect to the browser thanks to Python APIs. Despite differences in browser design, it can communicate regular Python commands to a variety of browsers.
If the URL's first character is not either http or https, an exception is raised. As a result, the driver must receive the HTTP protocol. method get().
On web applications, we can do regression and functional tests.
Both implicit wait and explicit wait are used to accomplish synchronisation.
To enter keyboard key values into a text box on a software web application, use the "type" command. In contrast to the "typeAndWait" command, which is used when you finish typing and the software website starts to reload, it can also be used to select values from a combo box. This command will hold off until the software program's page has completely reloaded. If there is no page reload event, you must type a simple "type" command.
The open-source frameworks that Selenium WebDriver supports are as follows:
If a new window appears while the script is being executed, it has an address and a handle. Each handle is listed in the variable handles .
The WebDriver's Super Interface is called SearchContext.
To begin the selection from a node in the document, we will use the symbol /. We can construct absolute Xpath expressions thanks to it. To begin the selection anywhere in the document, use /. We can generate relative Xpath expressions thanks to it.
We must utilise the Select class of Webdriver in Selenium Webdriver in order to select a dropdown's value. With the help of this class, we may choose a dropdown's value, visible text, or index number (position).
It automates web-based applications and is platform and browser compatible. It supports a variety of languages, including Python, Java, and C#.
Not at all; only web-based applications are automated.
The process of extracting a lot of info from a website and storing it locally.
Yes, we can because Selenium has an Action class that we can utilise to implement the act. To relocate the mouse control to precise coordinates, use the move by offset() method.
The object repository is used to store the element locator data in one place rather than hard-coding it into the scripts. We establish a property file (.properties), which serves as an object repository in Selenium WebDriver, to hold all of the element locators.
The following are some circumstances that we cannot automate:
The simplest and most straightforward tool in the Selenium Package is the Selenium IDE. Its record and playback features make it incredibly simple to learn any programming language with little to no prior experience. The Selenium IDE is the perfect tool for a beginner.
Before the string "mystring," add "u."
The source code of a Python programme is directly executed. Each sort of Python programme that is executed requires code. Python translates the programmer's source code into intermediate language, which is then translated once again into the machine language that is executed. Python is therefore an interpretive language.
Selenium WebDriver Listeners, as their name suggests, "listen" to every event that the Selenium code defines. When you want to know what happens before you click any element, before and after you browse to an element, or when an exception is thrown and the test fails, listeners can be helpful. In Selenium Automation Testing, listeners can be used to log the sequence of events and take a screenshot if an exception is thrown. Debugging is made simpler in the later stages of test execution as a result. Web Driver Event Listeners and TestNG are two instances of Listeners.
There are two approaches to implement the Webdriver Event Listeners:
Due to the fact that HTMLUnitDriver does not perform tests in the browser, it is the fastest WebDriver implementation. Starting a browser and running test cases takes longer than running the scripts without a browser. HTMLUnitDriver employed a straightforward HTTP request-response approach for test case execution.
Test cases could fail while the test scripts are being run. We just take a screenshot during manual test case execution and store it in a result repository. The same goal can be reached using Selenium WebDriver. The following are some situations where we might need to use Selenium WebDriver to take a screenshot:
A screenshot of the software being tested can be taken using the Selenium interface TakesScreenshot's function getScreenShotAs. We might encounter a few issues when using Selenium 3 to take screenshots. We work around this using the aShot() function.
Assertions are used in Selenium to determine whether the results of a test match what was anticipated. With assertions, you may check whether a given condition is true; if it is not, the test will stop running and an assertion error will be raised. Assertions can be used to check the text of an element, the value of an input field, the presence of an element on the page, and many other things. Using the org.junit.Assert and org.testng.Assert classes for TestNG and JUnit, respectively, Selenium WebDriver offers assertion techniques.
An automated tool for functional and regression testing of software applications is called Silk Testing (formerly Segue Silk Test). It was created and is now maintained by Micro Focus, and it is used to automate GUI-based tests for a range of desktop, mobile, and web applications. Applications can be tested using the tool on several operating systems, including Windows, iOS, and Android. By creating test scripts that mimic user interactions with the application under test, users of Silk Testing's proprietary scripting language 4Test can automate the testing process. Users can record and edit test scripts using a GUI utilising the tool's visual text editor, which is also included.
A security measure known as the "same Origin policy" permits a web browser to run scripts from one webpage in order to access the content of another webpage as long as both pages share the same origin. The hostname, port number, and URL scheme are together referred to as the origin. This policy was implemented to prevent unauthorised access to private information on one website by another.
By allowing the user to pause at the statement that is producing the exception and enter debug mode by clicking on the pause symbol on the upper right corner of the IDE, the pause feature is designed to manage exceptions in the test script. This function stops the entire test case from failing and offers the user the opportunity to fix the mistake right away.
Since Selenium is an automated testing tool designed for web application-based testing, it does not handle windows-based pop-ups. Nevertheless, windows-based pop-ups can be handled in selenium with the assistance of third-party technologies like AutoIT, Robot class, etc.
The various categories of frameworks include the following:
Robot Framework is an open-source, modular automation framework that can communicate with libraries and features from outside sources. A test automation runner or an automation wrapper, such as Robot Framework, is needed in order to run a web testing library like Selenium. MSTest, TestNG, Nunit, Junit, and other well-liked test runners are available to fulfil the same function.
The relationship between the Robot framework and the Selenium library is shown in the diagram below:
When you click a submit button, the crucial information might appear on the website without requiring a browser refresh. It might take less time to load or it might take more time. The amount of time it takes for pages to load is beyond of our control. The simplest approach to handle situations like this in Selenium is to use dynamic waits.
Let's have a look at how to handle a StaleElementReferenceException before we examine how to handle one utilising the Page Object Model.
You have to define the Stale Element Reference Exception first. Stale describes something that has aged, degraded, and lost its freshness. A stale element is one that is out of date or unavailable. Assume that a WebElement is found on a web page using WebDriver. When the DOM changes, the WebElement becomes outdated. When we attempt to interact with a stale element, the StaleElementReferenceException is raised.
It is not advised to combine implicit and explicit waits, according to the Selenium documentation. Wait times may change when the two are combined. Implicit wait is mentioned in the code just once. It will remain the same for the duration of the driver object instance.
The code uses explicit wait wherever it is necessary. This wait will be called when it is ready for execution. A conditional waiting period is in place. The explicit wait will take precedence over the implicit wait wherever it is used. Hence, Explicit Wait prevails over Implicit Wait.
Compared to JUnit, the Selenium RC testing framework by default, TestNG offers more robust and flexible test configuration and execution. TestNG's ability to execute tests concurrently, offer data-driven testing, and annotate test methods can all result in quicker test execution and better test organisation. Furthermore, TestNG offers JUnit more sophisticated reporting and logging options. The effectiveness and efficiency of automating web application testing can be increased by combining Selenium RC with TestNG.
Selenium WebDriver is a web browser automation tool; database testing is not its intended use. You need a database testing tool that can connect to the database and carry out various actions, such as running SQL queries and verifying the results, in order to test databases. Tools for testing databases include DBUnit, jOOQ, and JDBC. These technologies offer an API that may be used to establish a connection to the database, carry out operations, and make claims about the outcomes.
Absolutely, responsive web design can be tested with Selenium. Selenium is a web automation tool that makes it possible to automate browser interactions. As a result, it can be used to simulate interactions on various screen sizes and resolutions in order to assess a website's responsiveness. Among the things to test here are how the page layout adapts to various viewport widths, how the page elements appear on various devices, and how the page responds to a user switching between the landscape and portrait orientations.
Using the Selenium WebDriver API to change the browser's viewport size and then testing the page's layout and functioning is one technique to use Selenium to test responsive web design. Another option is to test how the page performs on various devices and screen sizes by using a third-party library like Selenium-Responsive-Testing.
It is important to note that Selenium is not sufficient for testing responsive web design; additional techniques, such as manual testing, visual testing, and the use of responsive design testing tools, should be used in addition.
An XML configuration file used in the TestNG framework is called testing.xml, commonly known as testng.xml. It is used to set up and run test plans and test scenarios. It offers a technique for defining and setting up test suites from test methods, classes, and packages. It also enables setting up test data, test listeners, test reporting, parallel execution, test execution order, and more. Users can specify, among other things, what test listeners and test configuration should be used, whether test methods or classes should be included or excluded in a test run, using the testing.xml file. It is used to logically arrange and carry out test methods, classes, and packages.
Selenium WebDriver uses the Page Factory design pattern to build an object store for web components. It is a development of the Page Object Model design pattern, which is employed to establish a centralised repository for web components. By separating the test code from the technical intricacies of locating web elements, it employs annotations to identify and initialise web elements at runtime and to make the code more legible and manageable. You must construct a class for each web page in order to utilise Page Factory, and you must define web elements in that class using the @FindBy annotation. The class must also contain methods for interacting with the web components.
The best way to get ready for a Selenium Python interview is to brush up on the fundamentals, practise coding, research the business, be prepared to exhibit your talents, practise communication skills, and be confident and upbeat throughout the interview.
Python is supported by Selenium, making it possible to use Selenium WebDriver with Python for testing. Python is simpler than other programming languages since it uses a lot less verbose vocabulary. The Python APIs give you the ability to use Selenium to connect to the browser.
Yes, Selenium with Python is a good choice for web automation testing.
Java is not as user-friendly or as effective as Python. The Python API's connection to the browser is made easier using Selenium. The combination of Python and Selenium offers a straightforward API for creating functional tests by sparingly utilising Selenium WebDriver.
You must be familiar with all the fundamental Python programming ideas because Python and Selenium are both fairly simple to learn and use. If you are diligent, you only need to have a fundamental understanding of programming, not Python, as I already explained.
PyUnit, which is regarded as a standard Python Selenium Framework for test automation, is also known as UnitTest.
The testing of web applications is automated using the selenium framework, which combines a number of selenium technologies. It shortens test cycle times, saving resources and money. Simply put, Selenium is a free, open-source framework for automating software testing of Java.
Selenium Interview Preparation
Salesforce has taken centre stage in any company's sales and marketing automation initiatives, and there is a greater than ever need for experienced Salesforce administrators. But, there is stiff competition for the right places as well, so being prepared is essential if you want to stand out from the crowd.
You may efficiently prepare for Salesforce interviews by using these frequently asked questions and responses.
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Madhuri is a Senior Content Creator at MindMajix. She has written about a range of different topics on various technologies, which include, Splunk, Tensorflow, Selenium, and CEH. She spends most of her time researching on technology, and startups. Connect with her via LinkedIn and Twitter .
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